What happens when you're faced with a workforce that seems unwelcoming or even hostile? For people like Dennis Jackson, often the answer is to become your own boss.
In Los Angeles, he is making the best of an October heat wave by selling solar panels. Jackson says he has essentially always been an entrepreneur. He started in landscaping and moved toward solar panel installation.
The 40-year-old Detroit native says he chose those jobs because "there are not many black people in the industry. There's some black guys that are landscapers, and we look at each other as unicorns because there's not many of us."
Race and how we perceive it affects what happens in the workplace. A poll by NPR, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health finds that a majority of African-Americans say they've experienced discrimination in hiring, pay and promotions.
There have only been a few brief times when Jackson has had a boss. He currently has a small operation — five employees and a few independent contractors. In many ways, he says, his entrepreneurial spirit has helped him avoid the glass ceiling.
"Discrimination, I try to avoid it at all cost," Jackson says. "I'm not going to have to go through that because I'm going to write my own ticket."